Who suggested that the sun’s energy was gravitational contraction?
1) In the late 1800s, Kelvin and Helmholtz suggested that the Sun stayed hot thanks to gravitational contraction. What was the major drawback of this idea? A) It predicted that the Sun could last only about 25 million years, which is far less than the age of Earth.
What major problem was identified with the idea that the sun was powered by gravitational contraction?
At the time the hypothesis was suggested, what major problem was identified with the idea that the Sun was powered by gravitational contraction? This process would power the Sun for only about 25 million years, but geologists already had evidence the Earth was much older than that. helium, energy, and neutrinos.
What do we mean when we say the sun is in gravitational equilibrium?
What do we mean when we say that the Sun is in gravitational equilibrium? There is a balance within the Sun between the outward push of pressure and the inward pull of gravity. The amount of energy released by fusion in the Sun’s core equals the amount of energy radiated from the Sun’s surface into space.
How does the sun generate energy today quizlet?
The Sun generates energy primarily by nuclear fission. Nuclear power plants on Earth create energy in the same way as the Sun. The corona and chromosphere are hotter than the photosphere.
How can we best observe the sun’s chromosphere and corona?
How can we best observe the Sun’s chromosphere and corona? The chromosphere is best observed with infrared telescopes and the corona is best observed with ultraviolet telescopes.
What is the phase of matter in the sun?
The Sun is our nearest star. It is, as all stars are, a hot ball of gas made up mostly of Hydrogen. The Sun is so hot that most of the gas is actually plasma, the fourth state of matter. The first state is a solid and it is the coldest state of matter.
What is the only force that can overcome the repulsion?
At large distances, two nuclei repel one another because of the repulsive electrostatic force between their positively charged protons. If two nuclei can be brought close enough together, however, the electrostatic repulsion can be overcome by the attractive nuclear force, which is stronger at close distances.
Why does the sunshine?
The Sun shines because it is hot. The Sun remains hot because it is powered by nuclear fusion in its core. When hydrogen is fused into helium, mass is converted into energy.
Which layer of the sun do we normally see?
The boundary between the Sun’s interior and the solar atmosphere is called the photosphere. It is what we see as the visible “surface” of the Sun. The photosphere is not like the surface of a planet; even if you could tolerate the heat you couldn’t stand on it.
Why do sunspots appear dark?
Sunspots are blotches on the sun that appear dark because they are cooler than the rest of the solar surface. Astronomers do know they are linked to intense magnetic activity on the sun, which can suppress the flow of hot matter, but much about their structure and behavior remains enigmatic.
What keeps the sun’s outer layers from collapsing?
The inward pressure that keeps a star from exploding is the gravitational attraction of the gas mantle surrounding the core (which is most of the volume of the Sun, and is very hot but does not burn itself). The outward pressure from the fusion reactions keeps the stars from collapsing.
What keeps the sun’s outer layers from falling inward due to gravity?
Within the Sun, therefore, pressure creates an outward force, from the high-pressure core to the low-pressure surface. This is in contrast to gravity, which creates an inward force. When the force due to pressure exactly balances the force due to gravity, a system is in hydrostatic equilibrium.
How does the sun generate its energy today?
The sun generates energy from a process called nuclear fusion. During nuclear fusion, the high pressure and temperature in the sun’s core cause nuclei to separate from their electrons. The radiant energy travels to the Earth at a speed of 186,000 miles per second, the speed of light.
How much mass does the sun lose per second through energy production quizlet?
the amount of mass lost when hydrogen fuses into helium is only about 0.7%, the initial mass, roughly 8×10^11 kg of hydrogen must fuse in order for the Sun to lose 5×10^9 kg every second. If the sun has the same mass but a lower luminosity its lifespan would be? longer than 10 billion years.
What is the average temperature of the surface of the sun quizlet?
The surface temperature of the sun is 5800K and its centeral temperature is 15 million kelvin.